2019-01-24 10:41




21. Researchers think that guiltcan be a good thing because it may help__________.

A. regulate a child’s basic emotions

B. improve a child’s intellectual ability

C. intensify a child’s positive feelings

D. foster a child’s moral development


解析:由题干“guilt can be a good thing”定位到第一段最后一句,答案句来自于定位句的前句“Children aren’t born knowing how to say “I’m sorry”; rather,they learn over time that such statements appease parents and friends—and their own consciences”(孩子不是天生知道怎么说“对不起”;相反,他们随着时间的推移了解到这些表达可以抚慰父母和朋友 - 以及他们自己的良心)。此外,本题也可从主旨,第一段首句Unlike so-called basic emotions such as sadness, fear, and anger,guilt emerges a little later, in conjunction with a child’s growing grasp of social and moral norms(与悲伤,恐惧和愤怒等所谓的基本情绪不同,随着孩子对社会和道德规范的不断掌握,后来出现了内疚。)由此可知,本段强调内疚与孩子的道德规范呈正向关系。

22. According to Paragraph2, many people still consider guilt to be _________.

A. deceptive B. addictive C.burdensome D. inexcusable


解析:由题干定位到第二段第三句More important,guilt is deeply uncomfortable—it’s the emotional equivalent of wearing a jacket weighted with stones.(更重要的是,内疚是非常不舒服的 - 这在情感上的等同于穿着如同石头重的夹克。)

23. Vaish holds that therethinking about guilt comes from an awareness that________.

A. an emotion can playopposing roles

B. emotions are sociallyconstructive

C. emotional stability canbenefit health

D. emotions are context -independent


解析:用题干关键词Vaish定位到文章第二段第六句,“There has been a kind of revival or a rethinking about what guilt isand what role guilt can serve,” Vaish says, adding thatthis revival is part of a larger recognition that emotions aren’t binary—feelings that may be advantageousin one context may be harmful in another(Vaish说关于内疚是什么或者内疚扮演了什么角色,现在有着重新思考。情绪不是二元情感,在一个情形中有益的情感在另一个情形中可能是有害的。)

24. Malti and others haveshown that cooperation and sharing_______.

A. may help correctemotional deficiencies

B. can bring about emotionalsatisfaction

C. can result from eithersympathy or guilt

D. may be the outcome ofimpulsive acts


解析:题干关键词Malti定位到原文第四段第二句,答案在其后句,即第四段第三句In a number of studies, Malti and others have shown that guilt andsympathy (and its close cousin empathy) may represent different pathways tocooperation and sharing(在一些研究中,马尔蒂和其他人已经表明了内疚和同情(及其近亲同感)可能代表通往合作和分享的不同途径。)

25. The word “transgressions” (line4 para5) is closest in meaning to________.

A. wrongdoings

B. discussions

C. Restrictions

D. Teachings


解析:由题干定位到第五段第二句,they rated eachchild’s overall sympathy level and his or her tendencyto feel negative emotions (like guilt and sadness) after moral transgressions.由定位句中的negative emotions可知整句话为负向逻辑,由此可知答案为A。

Text 2



26. “One of the harder challenges” implies ___

A. global climate change mayget out of control

B. forests may become apotential threat

C. people may misunderstandglobal warming

D. extreme weather conditionsmay arise


解析:由题干“One of the harder challenges”第一段第一句。答案在后句Even as we humans count on forests to soak up a good share of thecarbon dioxide we produce, we are threatening their ability to do so(尽管人类依赖森林吸收我们排放的二氧化碳,我们也在威胁他们这方面的能力。)随后,本段最后一句进一步指出 The climate change we are hastening could one day leave us withforests that emit more carbon than they absorb(我们加速的气候变化总有一天会让森林排放更多的二氧化碳而不是吸收。)

27. To maintain forests asvaluable "carbon sinks", we may need to _

A. preserve diversity ofspecies

B. lower their presentcarbon-absorbing capacity

C. accelerate the growth ofyoung trees

D. strike a balance amongdifferent plants


解析:由题干关键词valuable "carbonsinks"定位到第二段第二句,Helping forests flourish asvaluable "carbon sinks" long into the future may require reducingtheir capacity to sequester carbon now(帮助森林在未来作为有价值的碳汇需要减少他们现在吸收碳的能力。)

28. California's Forest CarbonPlan endeavors to ___ A. restore its forests quickly after wildfires.

B. cultivate more droughtresistant trees.

C. find more effective ways tokill insects

D. reduce the density of someof its forests


解析:由题干关键词California's ForestCarbon Plan定位到第三段第一句,The state's proposed Forest CarbonPlan aims to double efforts to thin out young trees and clear brush in parts ofthe forest, including by controlled burning(该州拟议的森林碳计划旨在加倍努力减少幼树和清理杂树,包括控制燃烧等手段)

29. What is essential toCalifornia's plan according to para. 5?

A. To obtain enough financialsupport

B. To carry it out before 2020

C. To handle the areas in theserious danger first

D. To perfect theemission-permit auctions


解析:根据题干定位到第五段第二句,so it will beimportant to prioritize areas at greatest risk of fire or drought(因此,优先考虑最大火灾或干旱风险的区域将会非常重要)

30. the author's attitude towardCalifornia's plan can be best described as ____

A. supportive B. ambiguous C.tolerant D. cautious


解析:根据题干California’s plan定位到最后一段最后一句,California's plan, which is expected to be finalized by the governorearly next year, should serve as a model(加州的计划,预计将于明年初由州长最终确定,应作为模范),模范一词带有明显正向意味,故本题选A。

Text 3


31. What problem should beaddressed according to the first two paragraphs?

A. discrimination againstforeign workers in the U.S. B. biased laws in favor of some Americanbusinesses. C. flaws in US immigration rules for farm workers.

E. decline of job opportunitiesin US agriculture.


解析:题干要求定位前两段,第二段首句Efforts tocreate a more straightforward agricultural-workers visa that would enableforeign workers to stay longer in the U.S. and change jobs within the industryhave so far failed in Congress(努力创造一个更加直接的农业工人签证,使外国工人在美国停留更长时间并改变行业内的工作岗位,这些努力被国会否决了。)

32. One trouble with US.Agriculture workforce is___ A. the rising number of illegal immigrants.

B. the high mobility of cropworkers.

C. the lack of experiencedlabors.

D. the aging of immigrant farmworkers.


解析:根据题干定位到第三段,可知美国农业劳动力目前的问题在于逐渐变老(They are also aging.)

33. What is the much-arguedsolution to the labor shortage in US farming?

A. To attract younger laborersto farm work.

B. To get native US workersback to farming.

C. To use more robots to growhigh-value crops.

D. To strengthen financialsupport for famers.


解析:根据题干定位到第四段,本段为独句段Oneoft-debated cure for this labor shortage remains as implausible as it has beenall along: Native U.S. workers won’t be returning tothe farm(对于这种劳动力短缺的一个经常辩论的解决方法仍然像以往一样难以置信:美国本土工人不会返回农场。)

34. Agriculture employerscomplain about the H-2A visa for its____?

A. slow granting procedures.

B. limit on duration of stay.

C. tightened requirements.

D. control of annualadmissions.


解析:由题干关键词H-2A定位到文章第八段第三句,The process is cumbersome, expensive and unreliable(该过程繁琐,昂贵且不可靠。)

35. Which of the following couldbe the best title for this text?

A. US Agriculture in Decline.

B. Import Food or Labor?

C. America Saved by Mexico?

D. Manpower vs. Automation?



Text 4




36. Some celebrities star in anew video to

A. demand new laws on the useof plastics

B. urge consumers to cut theuse of plastics

C. invite public opinion on theplastics crisis

D. disclose the causes of theplastics crisis


解析:根据题干中的Some celebrities starin a new video定位到第一段第二句,encouraging you, the consumer,to swap out your single-use plastic staples to combat the plastic crisis(鼓励你,消费者,换掉你的一次性塑料钉来对抗塑料危机),“换掉”意味着不再使用,可知答案为B。

37. The author is concerned that“morallicensing” may

A. mislead us into doingworthless things

B. prevent us from makingfurther efforts

C. weaken our sense ofaccomplishment

D. suppress our desire forsuccess


解析:根据题干“moral licensing”定位到第九段首句,without ever progressive onto bigger, bolder, more effective actions”(没有进步到更大,更大胆,更有效的行动),这里的行动即是指moral licensing,由此可知答案为B。

38. By pointing out our identityas “citizens,” the author indicates that

A. our focus should be shiftedto community welfare

B. our relationship with localindustries is improving C. we have been actively exercising our civil rights D.We should press our governments to lead the combat


解析:由题干“citizens”定位到第十段第一句,While the conversation around our environment and our responsibilitytoward it remains centered on shopping bags and straws, we're ignoring thebalance of power that implies that as "consumers" we must shopsustainably, rather than as "citizens" hold our governments andindustries to account to push for real systemic change(围绕我们环境的谈话以及我们对此的责任仍然存在以购物袋和吸管为中心,我们忽视了权力的平衡,这意味着作为“消费者”,而不是作为“公民”,我们必须以可持续的方式购物,支持我们的政府和行业应该推动真正的系统性变革)。

39. De Sombre argues that thebest way for a collective change should be

A. a win-win arrangement

B. a self-driven mechanism

C. a cost- effective approach

D. a top down process


解析:根据题干De Sombre定位到文章十一段最后一句the best way to collectively change the behavior of large numbers ofpeople is for the change to be structural(最好的集体改变大量人的行为的方式是结构性改变。),随后两段具体探讨如何结构性改变,从政府到个人,这是自上而下的过程。

40. The author concludes thatindividual efforts

A. can be too aggressive

B. are far from sufficient

C. can be too inconsistent

D. are far from rational


解析:根据题干定位到最后一段最后一句,We needprogressive policies(我们还需要进步性政策)可知现在做的还不够。







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